To be effective, iCCM programs require supportive health system strategies that ensure supportive policies, adequate resources, CHW incentives, supply of commodities, adequate training and supervision, linkages between communities and health systems, and the overall delivery of quality services — all on a continuous basis. In response to the expansion of iCCM programming, USAID and collaborating development partners have also developed an iCCM benchmark framework to describe the stages of implementation and necessary health systems components for iCCM.
A large challenge across all components and all stages of iCCM programs is the bottleneck in monitoring implementation and evaluating progress. This issue is compounded by the fact that iCCM is often a newly introduced intervention, conducted in the community and disconnected from data collection through routine health management information systems (HMISs). While national programs and development partners usually develop specific protocols at the start of iCCM programs (referred to as the “national iCCM protocol handbook”), they often measure monitoring and evaluation (M&E) indicators that are nonstandard and therefore not comparable to other country’s iCCM programs. In response to a lack of recommended standard iCCM indicators, global partners came together through the iCCM Task Force to develop a list of proposed iCCM indicators that programs might adopt to monitor implementation and evaluate progress. The Task Force also developed an expanded results framework for situational analysis of those implementing iCCM.